Monday, April 2, 2012

Disaster Control Nursing


·         Disasters is defined as a threatening or occurring event of such destructive magnitude and force as to dislocate people, separate family members, damage or destroy homes, and injure or kill people. (American Red Cross)
·         Disaster events can either be classified as Natural disasters, like floods, winter storms, wildfires and earthquakes, or Human-caused disasters, such as residential fires, domestic acts of terrorism and transportation accidents.

Level of Disaster
       Level III
       A minor disaster that involves a minimal level of damage but could result in a presidential declaration of an emergency
       Level II
       A moderate disaster that likely will result in a presidential declaration of an emergency, with moderate federal assistance
       Level I
       A massive disaster that involves significant damage and results in a presidential disaster declaration, with major federal involvement and full engagement of federal, regional and national resources. Large scale disasters will likely activate National Response Plan/Framework.

Phases of Disaster Management (*FEMA)

1.        Mitigation - measures or actions are taken to prevent the occurrence of a disaster or reduce the damaging effects of a disaster.
2.        Preparedness - e.g planning and practicing community disaster plans.
3.        Response - putting disaster planning services into action and the action taken to save lives and prevent further damage.
4.        Recovery - restoration of the previous normal situation of the community.

Guidelines for Nurses in Disaster Planning

·         Nurses should have personal and family disaster plans. It is difficult to provide care to others when one is concerned about the safety of one's family.
·         Nurses must be aware and familiar with the disaster plan in their facility and community
·         Disaster preparedness is essential in executing disaster plans in the community. Nurses should maintain certification in disaster training and CPR.
·         In providing care to the injured, nurses would care for the victims by attending to those with life-threatening problems first. Immediate plans for triage should begin. Nurse must be familiar with the triage system of the health care facility.

Three-Tier Triage System

1.        First Priority: Emergent (Red)

·   Victims that have life-threatening injuries, but are readily correctable.
·   Example: trauma, chest pain, severe respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, shock.

2.        Second Priority: Urgent (Yellow)

·         Victims must be treated within 1 to 2 hours.
·         Example: simple fracture, asthma without respiratory distress, fever, hypertension, abdominal pain

3.        Third Priority non-urgent (Green)

·         Victim has no injury, is noncritical or is ambulatory.
·         Example: minor laceration, sprain or cold symptoms

Priority Action in the Event of a Fire
Evacuate all the patients away from the vicinity of a fire.
Activate the fire alarm and report a fire before attempting to extinguish it.
Close all doors and windows to contain and prevent fast spread of fire.



Use appropriate type of extinguisher to extinguish the fire.

Class of Fire

Wood, cloth, upholstery, paper, plastic
Flammable liquids or gases, greases, tar, and oil-based paint
Electrical equipment

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