Monday, April 2, 2012

Disaster Control Nursing


DISASTER CONTROL

·         Disasters is defined as a threatening or occurring event of such destructive magnitude and force as to dislocate people, separate family members, damage or destroy homes, and injure or kill people. (American Red Cross)
·         Disaster events can either be classified as Natural disasters, like floods, winter storms, wildfires and earthquakes, or Human-caused disasters, such as residential fires, domestic acts of terrorism and transportation accidents.

Level of Disaster
       Level III
       A minor disaster that involves a minimal level of damage but could result in a presidential declaration of an emergency
       Level II
       A moderate disaster that likely will result in a presidential declaration of an emergency, with moderate federal assistance
       Level I
       A massive disaster that involves significant damage and results in a presidential disaster declaration, with major federal involvement and full engagement of federal, regional and national resources. Large scale disasters will likely activate National Response Plan/Framework.



Phases of Disaster Management (*FEMA)

1.        Mitigation - measures or actions are taken to prevent the occurrence of a disaster or reduce the damaging effects of a disaster.
2.        Preparedness - e.g planning and practicing community disaster plans.
3.        Response - putting disaster planning services into action and the action taken to save lives and prevent further damage.
4.        Recovery - restoration of the previous normal situation of the community.

Guidelines for Nurses in Disaster Planning

·         Nurses should have personal and family disaster plans. It is difficult to provide care to others when one is concerned about the safety of one's family.
·         Nurses must be aware and familiar with the disaster plan in their facility and community
·         Disaster preparedness is essential in executing disaster plans in the community. Nurses should maintain certification in disaster training and CPR.
·         In providing care to the injured, nurses would care for the victims by attending to those with life-threatening problems first. Immediate plans for triage should begin. Nurse must be familiar with the triage system of the health care facility.



Three-Tier Triage System

1.        First Priority: Emergent (Red)

·   Victims that have life-threatening injuries, but are readily correctable.
·   Example: trauma, chest pain, severe respiratory distress, cardiac arrest, shock.

2.        Second Priority: Urgent (Yellow)

·         Victims must be treated within 1 to 2 hours.
·         Example: simple fracture, asthma without respiratory distress, fever, hypertension, abdominal pain

3.        Third Priority non-urgent (Green)

·         Victim has no injury, is noncritical or is ambulatory.
·         Example: minor laceration, sprain or cold symptoms




Priority Action in the Event of a Fire
    →
Rescue:
Evacuate all the patients away from the vicinity of a fire.
Alarm:
Activate the fire alarm and report a fire before attempting to extinguish it.
Confine:
Close all doors and windows to contain and prevent fast spread of fire.


TYPE

A:
B:

C:
Extinguish:
Use appropriate type of extinguisher to extinguish the fire.

Class of Fire

Wood, cloth, upholstery, paper, plastic
Flammable liquids or gases, greases, tar, and oil-based paint
Electrical equipment









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