Monday, April 30, 2012



·         Neutralize gastric acid or reduce the acidity of stomach and duodenal contents by combining HCl and increasing pH in the GI tract.
·         Indications:
o    Indigestion, heartburn, acid  ingestion, reflux esophagitis, peptic ulcer, bind dietary phosphate in renal failure,hyperphosphatemia, relief of GI discomforts
·         Contraindications:   
o     Pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity, electrolyte disorders, GI obstruction, kidney disease

aluminum hydroxide ( AlternaGEL®, Amphojel®)
aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide ( Gaviscon®, Gelusil®, Maalox®, Mylanta®)
calcium carbonate (Tums®)
magnesium hydroxide (Mag-Ox®, Milk of Magnesia)

Adverse Reactions:

·         Aluminum-containing antacids – constipation, intestinal impaction, anorexia, weakness, tremors, and bone pain
·         Magnesium-containing antacids – severe diarrhea, dehydration, hypomagnesaemia, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, decreased respirations
·         Calcium-containing antacids – rebound hyperacidity, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcaemia, vomiting, confusion, headache, renal calculi, and neurological impairment
·         Sodium bicarbonate -  systemic alkalosis and rebound hyperacidity

Nursing Considerations:

ü  Should be taken on a regular schedule, 1-3 hours after each meal and at bedtime.
ü  Instruct to chew thoroughly & followed with a glass of water or milk.
ü   Interactions with other medications can be minimized by allowing 1 hour between antacid administration and the administration of other medications.
ü  Aluminum based are used with patients in renal failure.


·         Decrease secretion of gastric acid and formation of pepsin by blocking histamine-2 receptor sites and from stimulating the parietal cells that secrete acid, thus creating less acid in the stomach,
·         Indications:
o    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), heartburn, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, stress ulcers, GI bleeding, gastric & duodenal ulcers
·         Contraindications:   
o     Lactation, hypersensitivity, electrolyte disorders, GI obstruction, kidney disease

cimetidine ( Tagamet®)
famotidine (Pepcid®)
nizatidine (Axid®)
ranitidine ( Zantac®)

Side Effects:

·         Dizziness, headache
·         Constipation, diarrhea
·         Gynecomastia

Decreased libido
·         Impotence
·         Malaise
·         Pruritus, rash

Nursing Considerations:

ü  Monitor blood pressure and assess pulse in initial days of therapy.
ü  If the drug is given by rapid IV injection, monitor for profound bradycardia and other cardiotoxic effects. Report physician if there is slow heart rate.
ü  Separate administration with antacids by giving 1 hour before or 2 hours after administration.
ü  Monitor CBC, liver, kidney function.
ü  May cause mental confusion, agitation, psychosis, depression, anxiety and disorientation. Drugs must be stopped if this occurs.
ü  Inform the patient that cimetidine may cause sexual dysfunction.


·         It suppress gastric acid secretion by inhibiting  the hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme system of the gastric parietal cells.
·         Indications:
o    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),erosive esophagitis, heartburn, Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, stress ulcers, GI bleeding, gastric & duodenal ulcers, pathologic hypersecretory conditions
·         Contraindications:   
o     Hypersensitivity, pregnant & breast feeding patients

esomeprazole (Nexium®
lansoprazole (Prevacid®)
omeprazole ( Prilosec®, Prilosec® OTC)
pantoprazole ( Protonix®)
rabeprazole (Aciphex®)

Side Effects:

·         Headache
·         Nausea, vomiting
·         Abdominal pain
·         Diarrhea

Nursing Considerations:

ü  Administer 1 hour before meals
ü  Monitor for diarrhea & abdominal pain.
ü  Do not chew or crush the drug.
ü  Avoid smoking, alcohol, products containing aspirin, caffeine, NSAIDs, and foods that cause GI irritation which may counteract drug effects.


·         Inhibits GI motility & gastric secretions.
·         Indications:
o    Adjunctive therapy for peptic ulcer disease

·         Contraindications:   
o     Children, breast-feeding patients, angle-closure  glaucoma, uncontrolled tachycardia, urinary or GI tract obstruction, hypersensitivity, severe ulcerative colitis, myasthenia gravis, acute or severe hemorrhage, unstable cardiovascular status]
glycopyrrolate ( Robinul®)
mepenzolate (Cantil®)
methscopolamine ( Pamine®)
propantheline (Pro-Banthine®)

Side Effects:

·         Tachycardia
·         Headache, drowsiness
·         Blurred vision
·         Dry mouth
·         Decreased secretions
·         Constipation
·         Urine retention, hesitancy

Nursing Considerations:

ü  Avoid gastric irritants, alcohol, products containing aspirin, caffeine, NSAIDs, and foods that cause GI irritation which may counteract drug effects.
ü   Notify physician for abdominal pain & bleeding.


·         Bismuth subsalicylate: Reduces GI motility and gastric secretions
·         Misoprostol: Replaces gastric prostaglandins and enhances natural local protective mechanisms
·         Sucralfate: Protect gastric mucosa by coating the ulcer crater
·         Indications:
o    Adjunct to antibiotic therapy to eradicate Helicobacter pylori
o    Prevent gastric ulcers resulting from use of NSAIDs or treat duodenal ulcers not responding to other medication regimens
o    Short term treatment, prevention of gastric, duodenal, and stress ulcers.
·         Contraindications:   
o     Hypersensitivity, pregnant & breast feeding patients, chronic renal failure, liver impairment, allergic to prostaglandins
bismuth (Pepto-Bismol)
misoprostol ( Cytotec)
sucralfate ( Carafate)

Side effects:

·         Darkened tongue or stools
·         Nausea, vomiting
·         Diarrhea
·         Abdominal pain
·         Flatulence
·         Dyspepsia
·         Uterine cramping

Nursing Considerations:

ü  Assess for epigastric or abdominal pain, frank bleeding, occult bleeding & constipation.
ü  Do not administer with an antacid, separate administration time by at least 30 minutes.
ü  Administer drug at least 1 hour before meals and at bedtime for maximum effectiveness



·         These substances induces a temporary loss of sensation in a specific body parts or region by blocking action potential propagation along neural axons
·         Indication:
o    Symptomatic relief of pain (analgesic effect) from minor surface irritation or injury (e.g minor burns, abrasions, inflammation)
o    Minor surgical procedures (e.g circumcision, wound cleansing, myringotomy, suturing)
o    Chronic pain management
·         Contraindication: known hypersensitivity to the substance
·         Methods of administration
o    Tropical
§  Applied directly to the surface of the skin, mucous membrane, cornea & other regions
o    Infiltration anesthesia
§  The drug is injected directly into the selected tissue and allowed  to diffuse to the sensory nerve endings within the tissue
o    Peripheral nerve block
§  The drug is injected close to the nerve trunk
o    Central nerve block
§  The drug is injected within the spaces surrounding the spinal cord (e.g subarachnoid space).
o    Sympathetic ganglion injection

Generic names
Brand names
Oragel®, Americaine® *T
Marcaine®, Vivacaine® *I, PNB, CNB,SB
Butesin Picrate® *T
Nesacaine® *I, PNB,CNB
Nupercainal® *T
Duranest® *I, PNB, CNB
Xylocaine® *T, I, PNB, CNB, SB
Carbocaine® *T, I, PNB, CNB
Dermoplast®, Tronothane® *T
Catinest® *I, PNB
Novocain® *I, PNB, SB
Pontocaine® *T, CNB
* T - topical; PNB - peripheral nerve block; CNB - central nerve block; SB - sympathetic block


·         Drugs that depress the central nervous system, alleviate pain, inhibit the autonomic reflexes, relax skeletal muscle and cause loss of consciousness.

Stages of General Anesthesia:

Patient begins to lose somatic sensation. He is conscious and somewhat aware of what is happening.
II. Excitement (delirium)
Patient loses consciousness which is caused by depression of the cerebral cortex. Patient may appear agitated and restless. Efforts should be made to move the patient to the next stage as soon as possible to avoid injury.
Surgical anesthesia
Surgical procedure is performed at this stage.  Respiration becomes shallow and rapid (tachypnea).
IV. Medullary paralysis
Respiration is lost and circulatory collapse occurs due to the cessation of the medullary respiratory and vasomotor control centers as inhibited by the anesthetic substance.
Ventilatory assistance is indicated.

Inhalation Anesthetics

·         This method of administering general anesthetic substances is usually performed during the third (3rd) stage of anesthesia.
·         Most of the currently used inhaled anesthetics are in halogenated volatile liquid state. The only gaseous anesthetic that is widely used today is nitrous oxide and is usually used for relatively short-term procedures (e.g tooth extractions).

methoxyflurane (Penthrane®)

Recovery of unconsciousness: 1 hour after cessation of drug administration.
halothane (Fluothane®)
enflurane (Ethrane®)
isoflurane (Forane®)
sevoflurane (Ultane®)

Recovery of unconsciousness: within minutes after cessation of drug administration.
desflurane (Suprane®)
Nitrous oxide "laughing gas"

·         n.b Usaully combined with: barbiturate (thiopental), strong analgesic (morphine), muscle relaxant (pancuronium).
·         Use of succinylcholine, a depolarizing muscle relaxant, with inhaled anesthetics predisposes patient to malignant hyperthermia.
·         Malignant hyperthermia is an inherited myopathy characterized by a hypermetabolic state which is triggered when the patient is exposed to some anesthetic agents.


·         Halothane, enflurane & isoflorane are contraindicated in obstetrics unless uterine relaxation is desired.
·         Eflurane should not be given to patients with seizure disorders

Intravenous Anesthetics


o thiopental (Pentothal®)
o methohexical
o thiamylal
§ It has a rapid-acting effect once administered intravenously and is relatively safe if used appropriately.
§ It potentiates the effects of GABA therefore decreases the level of arousal.
droperidol (Innovar®)

§  Droperidol and fentanyl combination induces neuroleptanalgesia which is characterized by dissociation of the patient from what is happening around him with or without loss of consciousness.
etomidate (Amidate®)
§ A hypnotic-like drug that causes a rapid onset of general anesthesia with minimum cardiorespiratory side effects
§ Mimics the inhibitory effects of GABA
ketamine hydrochloride (Ketalar®)
§ Induces dissociative anesthesia. Useful during relatively short diagnostic or surgical procedures (endoscopy, burn dressing) or during invasive procedures in children
§ Binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the brain  and thus inhibiting the excitatory effects of glutamate

Commonly administered for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia or conscious sedation for minor surgery or procedures:


o midazolam
o diazepam
o lorazepam
§  It potentiates the effects of GABA and depresses neuronal excitability therefore induces general anesthesia/decreases the level of arousal.
Propofol (Diprivan®)
§  It can also be used as a short-acting hypnotic that is useful as a general anesthetic in short-invasive procedure.
§  Recovery is more rapid as compared with other anesthetics.
Opioid analgesics fentanyl
§  It decreases transmission of nociceptive pathways by binding to specific neuronal receptors in the brain and spinal cord.

Balanced Anesthesia

·         Frequently used in general anesthesia because it has fewer adverse reactions as compared to large doses of general anesthesia.
·         Balance anesthesia generally includes:
o    Narcotic analgesic: butorphanol (Stadol®)
o    Benzodiazepine: midazolam (Midazolam Injection®)
o    Anticholinergic: atropine
o    Short-acting barbiturate: thiopental sodium (Pentothal®)
o    Nitrous oxide
o    Muscle relaxant (e.g succinylcholine: Anectine®)

Advantages of balance anesthesia:

·         Minimizes cardiovascular problems
·         Decreases the amount of general anesthetic needed
·         Reduces possible postanesthetic nausea & vomiting
·         Minimizes the disturbance of organ function
·         Increases recovery from anesthesia

Nursing Consideration:

·         Constant monitoring of VS is imperative for patients administered with anesthetics. Respiratory and cardiovascular distress (e.g hypotension, dysrhythmias, malignant hyperthermia) may occur.
·         Monitor patient's state of sensorium after operation. Notify physician if patient remains unresponsive or confused for a time.
·         Monitor urine output and report deficits
·         Patients with large deposits of fats may take longer to washout anesthetics in the tissue. Patient may experience confusion, disorientation and lethargy. General anesthetics are highly lipid soluble and tend to get stored in adipose tissue.
·         Propofol supports microbial growth and increase the risk of bacterial infection. Discard open vials within 6 hours to prevent sepsis.
·         Have intubation supplied readily available.