Wednesday, March 28, 2012

Nervous System Anatomy Review


Frontal lobe-controls emotions, judgments, controls motor aspects of speech,
primary motor cortex for voluntary muscle activation

Parietal lobe-receives fibers with sensory information about touch,
proprioception, temperature, and pain from the other side of the body

Temporal lobe-responsible for auditory information, and language

Occipital lobe- center for visual information

Cerebellum- coordination of muscle function

Brainstem - (midbrain, pons, and medulla)-respiratory and cardiac center, nerve
pathways to the brain

Diencephalon – (thalamus, subthalamus, and hypothalamus)
Thalamus – Integrate and relay sensory information from the face, retina,
cochlea, and taste receptors. (Interprets sensation of touch, pain and

1.  Controls the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine systems.
2.  Maintains body homeostasis
3.  Helps regulate body temperature
4.  Helps regulate appetite control
5. Thirst Center
6. Sleeping Cycle
7.  Control of Hormone secretion

Glascow Coma Scale
+Eye Opening
+Best Motor Response
+Best Verbal Response
Total (3-15 Score Range) A score of 1 in each category indicates no
performance of skill.

Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight):
1. Dilated pupils
2.  Elevates heart rate and respiratory rate
3. Sweating
4.  Epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted
5.  Increased blood pressure
6.  Constriction of skin and abdominal arterioles

1. Constricted pupils
2.  Lowers heart rate and respiratory rate
3. Increased peristalsis
4. Acetylcholine secreted
5.  Decreases blood pressure
6.  Relaxation of skin and abdominal arterioles

Cranial Nerves
II-Optic-Vision acuity
III-Oculomotor – Eye function
IV-Trochlear – Eye function
V-Trigeminal – Sensory of the face,chewing
VI-Abducens – Eye function
VII-Facial – Facial expression, wrinkle forehead, taste anterior tongue
VIII-Vestibulocochlear – Auditory acuity, balance and postural responses
IX-Glossopharyngeal – taste on posterior 33% of the scale
X-Vagus – Cardiac, respiratory reflexes
XI-Spinal Accessory - Strength of trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid muscles
XII-Hypoglossal – Motor function of the tongue
Decorticate vs. Decerebrate Rigidity
Decorticate posturing-Upper limbs in flexion and the lower limbs in extension
Decerebrate posturing- Increased tone with all limbs in a position of extension

Key Terms
Apraxia-Inability to perform purposeful movements
Agnosia-Inability to recognize familiar objects by the various senses
Spasticity-increased tone, hyperactive reflexes, clonus,+Babinski
Ataxia-general term used to describe uncoordinated movement; may influence
gait, posture, and patterns of movements
Chorea-involuntary, rapid, irregular, jerky movements, clinical feature of
Huntington disease
Flaccidity-absent tone
Hypotonia-decreased tone
Expressive Aphasia- inability to speak or difficulty speaking
Receptive Aphasia-inability to understand verbal speech, inability to receive

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